Kamis, Februari 05, 2009

Peranan Interaksi dalam Kelompok terhadap Pengadopsian Inovasi

Setiap inovasi yang ditawarkan oleh penyuluh, diharapkan dapat terdifusi atau menyebar dari petani ke petani, sehingga diharapkan semua petani akan mengadopsi inovasi tersebut. Namun demikian, sebagaimana dinyatakan oleh Lionberger dan Gwin (1982: 63) bahwa pengadopsian inovasi merupakan sebuah proses pada diri setiap petani dengan demikian akan berbeda-beda durasi atau kecepatan pengadopsiannya dari satu petani dengan petani lainnya. Artinya ada petani yang cepat, ada yang sedang, ada yang lambat dalam mengadopsi inovasi, bahkan ada yang sama sekali tidak mengadopsi inovasi.

Beragam faktor yang mempengaruhi kecepatan adopsi inovasi, diantaranya adalah bentuk interaksi yang ada dalam kelompok atau masyarakat, yaitu:

1. Cooperation (Kerja sama)

Sargent dalam Santosa (1992:29) menyatakan bahwa kerjasama merupakan usaha terkoordinasi di antara anggota kelompok atau masyarakat yang diarahkan untuk mencapai tujuan bersama. Lebih lanjut Santosa (1992: 29-30) menyatakan bahwa kerjasama adalah suatu bentuk interaksi sosial di mana tujuan anggota kelompok yang satu berkaitan erat dengan tujuan anggota kelompok yang lain atau tujuan kelompok secara keseluruhan sehingga seseorang individu hanya dapat mencapai tujuan bila individu lain juga mencapai tujuan.

Bila tipe interaksi ini berkembang di antara anggota kelompok tani maka dapat diduga bahwa para petani akan saling membantu, saling mendukung, saling memberi/menerima, saling bergantung, dan saling memotivasi satu sama lain untuk maju. Inovasi yang ada dengan mudah menyebar di antara mereka, karena para petani mempunyai kepentingan yang sama yaitu ingin maju, sehingga mereka akan berupaya untuk saling berkoordinasi dan saling berkomunikasi dalam rangka lebih mengenal, memahami dan menguasai inovasi yang diperkenalkan pada mereka. Dalam setiap kelompok atau masyarakat selalu saja ada orang yang lebih dahulu memiliki informasi teknologi baru dan lebih maju (perintis, pelopor) (Arintadisastra, 1997: 118). Dengan pola interaksi kerjasama yang berkembang dalam masyarakat, mereka ini secara sadar atau tidak dapat memajukan anggota lainnya.

Pada umumnya, tipe interaksi ini yang paling banyak dijumpai pada masyarakat petani di Indonesia, karena masyarakat petani Indonesia secara kultural dan historis memiliki jiwa gotong royong dan kerjasama.

2. Competition (Persaingan)

Persaingan adalah bentuk interaksi sosial di mana bila seseorang individu dapat mencapai tujuan maka individu lain akan terpengaruh dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut. Persaingan juga dimaknai sebagai proses sosial di mana individu saling berusaha dan berlomba-lomba untuk mencapai keuntungan dalam waktu yang bersamaan (Santosa, 1992: 31).

Tidak dapat dihindari bahwa dalam kehidupan berkelompok atau bermasyarakat pasti akan terjadi persaingan antar individu akan sesuatu, demikian pula dalam kelompok atau masyarakat petani. Sepanjang persaingan yang terjadi bernilai positip atau sehat, maka tipe interaksi ini akan memberikan, membangun dan mendorong semangat para petani untuk berlomba-lomba dan berusaha mengenal, memahami inovasi, sehingga pada akhirnya mengadopsi inovasi yang diperkenalkan pada mereka. Artinya bila terdapat satu atau beberapa petani telah berhasil maju dikarenakan mengadopsi suatu inovasi, maka kondisi tersebut akan memicu dan mendorong petani lainnya untuk maju. Petani-petani lain tersebut akan terbangkit rasa ingin tahunya dan berupaya mencari informasi tentang inovasi yang diadopsi oleh petani yang telah berhasil tadi, untuk kemudian ia sendiri akan mempelajari dan menerapkannya agar dirinya juga dapat maju.

3. Conflict (Pertentangan)

Konflik dalam kelompok terjadi ketika terdapat ketidaksepahaman diantara anggota-anggotanya terhadap suatu pilihan yang sedang dihadapi. Konflik juga terjadi apabila terdapat ketidaksesuaian tujuan yang dimiliki antara satu anggota dengan anggota lainnya (Beebe dan Masterson, 1989: 203). Lebih lanjut Foger dan Poole dalam Beebe dan Masterson (1989: 203) mendefinisikan konflik sebagai interaksi dari orang-orang yang satu sama lain saling bergantung namun dikarenakan sesuatu hal, mereka memiliki tujuan yang tidak sejalan dan pada gilirannya mereka satu sama lainnya saling menghalangi akan pencapaian tujuan masing-masing.

Bila interaksi jenis ini muncul dalam suatu rangkaian proses difusi inovasi, maka kecepatan pengadopsian inovasi tersebut akan tersendat-sendat. Sebagaimana diketahui bahwa di dalam suatu masyarakat terdapat petani-petani yang tergolong tipe laggart. Biasanya mereka ini menolak adanya inovasi dan selalu berupaya untuk tetap memakai teknologi lama, serta selalu berorientasi masa lalu. Hal ini akan menjadi masalah besar, apabila kelompok laggard ini menolak dengan cara keras atau melakukan aksi yang bersifat menentang dan menantang, sehingga terjadilah pergesekan atau konflik. Lebih diperparah, apabila yang menjadi kelompok laggard adalah orang yang dituakan, terkemuka atau orang yang memiliki pengaruh di masyarakat maka penyebaran dan pengadopsian inovasi akan semakin sulit, karena penyuluh atau anggota masyarakat yang ingin mengadopsi inovasi akan berbenturan tidak hanya dengan tokoh tersebut tetapi juga dengan sebagian besar masyarakat pengikut tokoh tersebut

4. Accomodation (Persesuaian)

Santosa (1992: 33) menyatakan bahwa akomodasi adalah usaha-usaha individu untuk meredakan suatu pertentangan, yakni usaha-usaha untuk mencapai kestabilan. Akomodasi juga berarti usaha proses di mana individu atau kelompok saling mengadakan penyesuaian diri untuk mengatasi ketegangan-ketegangan.

Interaksi akomodasi dapat juga dikatakan sebagai bentuk penyelesaian konflik dengan tujuan untuk meredakan tekanan pihak. Menurut Tadjudin (2000: 82) akomodasi adalah suatu tindakan untuk meredakan tekanan pihak lain dengan cara menempatkan kepentingan pihak lain itu di atas kepentingannya sendiri. Tindakan ini lazimnya diambil oleh pihak yang lebih lemah dalam suatu konflik.

Interaksi jenis ini dapat mempercepat maupun memperlambat proses adopsi inovasi, tergantung pada pihak mana yang menyesuaikan diri. Sebagaimana telah dipaparkan di atas, apabila pihak yang tidak setuju atau menolak inovasi (laggard) adalah orang yang dituakan, terkemuka dan memiliki pengaruh maka kemungkinan yang terjadi adalah proses difusi inovasi menjadi terhambat atau bahkan tidak berjalan, sebagai akibatnya pengadopsian inovasi bisa saja gagal. Hal ini dikarenakan akomodasi terjadi pada pihak petani atau masyarakat kebanyakan. Sedangkan, apabila pihak yang menolak inovasi (laggard) adalah masyarakat atau petani biasa, bisa saja suatu saat karena tekanan sosial atau karena sebagian besar petani disekitarnya telah mengadopsi inovasi maka ia juga pada akhirnya mengadopsi walaupun sudah sangat terlambat.

Penutup

Dari uraian di atas jelaslah kiranya bahwa pengadosian inovasi tidak berlangsung secara singkat, perlu waktu mulai dari masuknya atau diperkenalkannya inovasi sampai inovasi tersebut menyebar dan diadopsi oleh seluruh anggota kelompok atau masyarakat. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pemahaman, keterampilan untuk mampu memahami bentuk-bentuk interaksi yang ada dalam mayarakat serta bagaimana mengelola interaksi tersebut menjadi sebuah potensi yang dapat diarahkan pada pencapaian tujuan penyuluhan. Yang juga perlu diperhatikan adalah kecenderungan bentuk interaksi yang mana dalam kelompok akan muncul sangat bergantung pada tipe kepemimpinan yang ada dalam kelompok tersebut.

Yusuf (1989: 99) menyatakan bahwa setiap kelompok, baik formal maupun informal, pada umumnya memiliki seorang pemimpin. Pemimpin dalam kelompok berperan sebagai pemegang kendali norma dan nilai kelompok, sekaligus ia tunduk pada norma dan nilai kelompok tersebut. Norma dan nilai dalam kelompok merupakan acuan atau landasan bagi anggota kelompok untuk beraktivitas dan berinteraksi. Selanjutnya, Wirawan (2003: 12) menyatakan bahwa kedudukan pemimpin sangat penting bagi kehidupan dan perkembangan kelompok. Pemimpin dengan kepemimpinannya mempengaruhi anggota kelompok untuk mencapai tujuan kelompok. Oleh karena itu, para penyuluh perlu melakukan pendekatan pada pemimpin masyarakat agar inovasi yang diperkenalkan dapat secara cepat menyebar dan diadopsi oleh masyarakat (kelayan).

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